Mac rolls

Put flour with salt in a bowl, make a hole add eggs. Rub the yeast with the sugar and add warm water. Start beating the eggs with a fork and slowly add the yeast with the water continuing to mix with the fork. When you no longer succeed, start kneading with your hands. If you think you need more flour, add a little more. Gradually add the warm oil, continuing to knead. A soft and non-sticky dough will come out. Let rise until it doubles in volume.

Preheat the oven to 180 °. Divide the dough into six equal parts.

We wallpaper a little flour on the work table and start to form an 80cm "string" ... then we put it together. ..and we turn our heads .... then we turn around it ... (see picture) .We continue until the last.

Put them in a pan greased with oil, grease them with egg yolk and sprinkle with poppy seeds. Put the tray in the oven for 30 minutes.

Warm, soft and crunchy are very tasty.

Good appetite! !!! :)


Japanese ingredients & # 8211 braided rolls

  • 500 grams of flour
  • 25 grams of fresh yeast or 7 grams of dry yeast
  • 50 grams of melted butter
  • 300 ml of milk (+/- 1-2 tablespoons, depending on the absorption capacity of the flour)
  • 10 grams (1 teaspoon) of salt
  • 1 tablespoon sugar
  • finishing: beaten egg or milk or egg yolk and seeds for sprinkling, etc. & # 8211 of your choice

Preparation of Japanese & # 8211 braided rolls

Dough

1. For the milk dough of these Japanese, mix the yeast with the sugar until liquefied. If you use dry yeast, simply mix it with the sugar in a bowl. Add 3-4 tablespoons of warm milk and 1 tablespoon of flour. Homogenize and leave in a warm place for a few minutes, until the yeast begins to act (it makes blisters).

2. Sift the flour into a large bowl and mix with the salt. Make room in the middle and pour the mayonnaise (leavened yeast). Pour the rest of the warm milk and start kneading. After obtaining a homogeneous dough, add the melted butter, but not hot. Knead until you get a smooth, non-sticky dough.

3. Place this well-kneaded dough in a bowl greased with a thin film of oil. Cover (with cling film or a kitchen towel) and place to rise in a warm place, until it doubles in volume (about 30 minutes).

Japanese & # 8211

4. The already raised Japanese dough is turned over on the work surface greased with oil.

5. Divide the dough for the braided rolls into equal pieces, about the size of a larger egg.

6. One at a time, work with a piece of Japanese dough. For starters, shape a dough string about 35-40 cm long. To obtain it, roll the piece of dough on the work surface greased with oil, lengthening it with your palms.

7. To shape our braided rolls, the dough cord is bent in the middle and the ends are twisted together, as seen in the picture below.

8. The loop formed at the bend of the dough cord rises and moves to the opposite side, positioning it above the twisting point of the two ends. It's already starting to look like Japanese!

9. One by one, the two ends of the dough cord, left free, are inserted, through the loop in the middle, below.

10. Arrange the loops a little and here is the first of our Japanese, already formed.

The second fermentation and baking

11. Place our Japanese ones in a tray covered with baking paper, spaced apart. Cover them with a thick kitchen towel and let them rise for another 20-30 minutes.

12. While our braided coils are growing, preheat the oven to 190 ° C. We grease our Japanese ones, already well grown, with what we prefer for finishing: egg yolk, beaten egg, beaten egg white, milk, etc. They can also be sprinkled with seeds (which I did not do, this time).

13. Put the tray with Japanese in the preheated oven at 190 ° C and immediately reduce the temperature to 180 ° C. Bake for 25 minutes. In the end they must be reddish, fluffy inside and very tasty.

May it be useful to you! More braided recipes find by clicking on the picture below.


Mac rolls - Recipes

Jank, Bernhard Rath, Johannes Gaugitsch, Helmut

Strategies and best practices for the co-existence of GM and non-GM crops need to be developed and implemented with the participation of farmers and other stakeholders. According to the principle of ‘subsidiarity’, decisions should be made by the lowest possible authority. When applying this concept to the case of GM crops, the affected society should determine their use and management in a regional decision-making process. Public participation is better accomplished at a lower level, and democratic deficits in decision-making on GMOs are better resolved, enabling farmers to manage or avoid GM crops. Ultimately, voluntary GMO-free zones might be a tool for sustainable co-existence and GM-free production and GMO-free zones might create a specific image for regional marketing products and services, such as tourism.

Engelhardt, Katharina A M Ritchie, Mark E Powell, James A

Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains / costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource.

Engelhardt, Katharina A. M. Ritchie, Mark E. Powell, James A.

Differences in body sizes may create a trade-off between foraging efficiency (foraging gains / costs) and access to resources. Such a trade-off provides a potential mechanism for ecologically similar species to coexist on one resource. We explored this hypothesis for tundra (Cygnus columbianus) and trumpeter swans (Cygnus buccinator), a federally protected species, feeding solely on sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) tubers during fall staging and wintering in northern Utah. Foraging efficiency was higher for tundra swans because this species experienced lower foraging and metabolic costs relative to foraging gains however, trumpeter swans (a) had longer necks and therefore had access to exclusive resources buried deep in wetland sediments and (b) were more aggressive and could therefore displace tundra swans from lucrative foraging locations. We conclude that body size differentiation is an important feature of coexistence among ecologically similar species feeding on one resource. In situations where resources are limiting and competition for resources is strong, conservation managers will need to consider the trade-off between foraging efficiency and access to resources to ensure ecologically similar species can coexist on a shared resource. PMID: 24672347

Valladares, Fernando Bastias, Cristina C. Godoy, Oscar Granda, Elena Escudero, Adrián

The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We review the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learned from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learned from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species , together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change. PMID: 26528323

Segura, Angel M. Calliari, Danilo Kruk, Carla Conde, Daniel Bonilla, Sylvia Fort, Hugo

The mechanisms that drive species coexistence and community dynamics have long puzzled ecologists. Here, we explain species coexistence, size structure and diversity patterns in a phytoplankton community using a combination of four fundamental factors: organism traits, size-based constraints, hydrology and species competition. Using a ‘microscopic’ Lotka – Volterra competition (MLVC) model (i.e. with explicit recipes to compute its parameters), we provide a mechanistic explanation of species coexistence along a niche axis (i.e. organismic volume). We based our model on empirically measured quantities, minimal ecological assumptions and stochastic processes. In nature, we found aggregated patterns of species biovolume (i.e. clumps) along the volume axis and a peak in species richness. Both patterns were reproduced by the MLVC model. Observed clumps corresponded to niche zones (volumes) where species fitness was highest, or where fitness was equal among competing species. The latter implies the action of equalizing processes, which would suggest emergent neutrality as a plausible mechanism to explain community patterns. PMID: 21177680

Valladares, Fernando Bastias, Cristina C Godoy, Oscar Granda, Elena Escudero, Adrián

The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We review the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learned from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learned from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species , together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

Liyanage, Chamari R D G Kodali, Venkata

The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequent detrimental impact on health. PMID: 25326558

Liyanage, Chamari R D G Kodali, Venkata

The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequent detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

Kleysteuber, William K. Mayercheck, William D.

This disclosure relates to a bulk material handling system particularly adapted for underground mining and includes a monorail supported overhead and carrying a plurality of conveyors each having input and output end portions with the output end portion of a first of the conveyors positioned above an input end portion of a second of the conveyors, a device for imparting motion to the conveyors to move the material from the input end portions toward the output end portions thereof, a device for supporting at least one of the input and output end portions of the first and second conveyors from the monorail, and the supporting device including a plurality of trolleys rollingly supported by the monorail whereby the conveyors can be readily moved therealong.

Sakavara, Athanasia Tsirtsis, George Roelke, Daniel L Mancy, Rebecca Spatharis, Sofie

The effect of life-history traits on resource competition outcomes is well understood in the context of a constant resource supply. However, almost all natural systems are subject to fluctuations of resources driven by cyclical processes such as seasonality and tidal hydrology. To understand community composition, it is therefore imperative to study the impact of resource fluctuations on interspecies competition. We adapted a well-established resource-competition model to show that fluctuations in inflow concentrations of two limiting resources lead to the survival of species in clumps along the trait axis, consistent with observations of "lumpy coexistence" [Scheffer M, van Nes EH ( 2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103: 6230-6235]. A complex dynamic pattern in the available ambient resources arose very early in the self-organization process and dictated the locations of clumps along the trait axis by creating niches that promoted the growth of species with specific traits. This dynamic pattern emerged as the combined result of fluctuations in the inflow of resources and their consumption by the most competitive species that accumulated the bulk of biomass early in assemblage organization. Clumps emerged robustly across a range of periodicities, phase differences, and amplitudes. Given the ubiquity in the real world of asynchronous fluctuations of limiting resources, our findings imply that assembly organization in clumps should be a common feature in nature. Copyright © 2018 the Author (s). Published by PNAS.

Piezoelectric voltage transformers (PTs) can be used to transform an input voltage into a different, required output voltage needed in electronic and electro-mechanical systems, among other varied uses. On the macro scale, they have been commercialized in electronics powering consumer laptop liquid crystal displays, and compete with an older, more prevalent technology, inductive electromagnetic volt-age transformers (EMTs). The present work investigates PTs on smaller size scales that are currently in the academic research sphere, with an eye towards applications including micro-robotics and other small-scale electronic and electromechanical sys- tems. PTs and EMTs are compared on the basis of power and energy density, with PTs trending towards higher values ​​of power and energy density, comparatively, indicating their suitability for small-scale systems.Among PT topologies, bulk disc-type PTs, operating in their fundamental radial extension mode, and free-free beam PTs, operating in their fundamental length extensional mode, are good can- didates for microfabrication and are considered here. Analytical modeling based on the Extended Hamilton Method is used to predict device performance and integrate mechanical tethering as a boundary condition. This model differs from previous PT models in that the electric enthalpy is used to derive constituent equations of motion with Hamilton's Method, and therefore this approach is also more generally applicable to other piezoelectric systems outside of the present work. Prototype devices are microfabricated using a two mask process consisting of traditional photolithography combined with micropowder blasting, and are tested with various output electri- cal loads. 4mm diameter tethered disc PTs on the order of .002cm. 3, two orders smaller than the bulk PT literature, had the followingperformance: a prototype with electrode area ratio (input area / output area) = 1 had peak gain of 2.3 (+/- 0.1), efficiency of 33 (+/- 0

Semiz, Hüseyin Kobak, Senol

Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may be present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Spain, S.L.U. and Spanish Society of Rheumatology and Mexican College of Rheumatology. All rights reserved.

Pätzold, Martin Andert, Tom Jacobson, Robert Rosenblatt, Pascal Dehant, Véronique

This work is a review of the mass determinations of the Mars moon Phobos by spacecraft close flybys, by solving for the Martian gravity field and by the analysis of secular orbit perturbations. The absolute value and accuracy is sensitive on the knowledge and accuracy of the Phobos ephemeris, of the spacecraft orbit, other perturbing forces acting on the spacecraft and the resolution of the Martian gravity field besides the measurement accuracy of the radio tracking data. The mass value and its error improved from spacecraft mission to mission or from the modern analysis of “old” tracking data but these solutions depend on the accuracy of the ephemeris at the time of observation. The mass value seems to settle within the range of GMPh = (7.11 ± 0.09) × 10-4 km3 s-2 which covers almost all mass values ​​from close flybys and “distant” encounters within its 3-σ error (1.5%). Using the volume value determined from MEX HRSC imaging, the bulk density is (1873 ± 31) kg m-3 (3-σ error or 1.7%), a low value which suggests that Phobos is either highly porous, is composed partially of light material or both. The determination of the gravity coefficients C20 and C22 from the Mars Express 2010 close flyby does not allow to draw conclusion on the internal structure. The large errors do not distinguish whether Phobos is homogeneous or not. In view of theories of the Phobos' origin, one possibility is that Phobos is not a captured asteroid but accreted from a debris disk in Mars orbit as a second generation solar system object.

Rogankov, Vitaly B Levchenko, Valeriy I

By combining a measurable vapor-liquid coexistence curve and the extended van der Waals-type of equation of state (EOS) with the additional temperature-dependent coefficient, the phenomenological model of global fluid asymmetry has been developed separately for both coexisting bulk phases in the entire range of subcritical states. It is shown, in particular, that the adequate description of a liquid branch and its near-critical vicinity in terms of appropriate critical exponents and amplitudes connected by the two-scale-factor universal interrelations can be achieved. The asymmetric influence of heterophase fluctuations on the criticality of gaseous states is demonstrated. It is inherently similar to the well-known Fisher’s droplet model, which corresponds to the scaling EOS too. The principle of corresponding isotherms has been formulated without any adjustable parameters. An attempt to avoid the use of a locally singular coexistence -curve diameter is proposed in the framework of two alternative models. The accurate vapor-liquid data for two fluid metals, Rb and Cs, as well as two molecular fluids, C (2) H (6) and CO (2), are reanalyzed by the above models to confirm the presumed opportunity.

Borile, Claudio Molina-Garcia, Daniel Maritan, Amos Muñoz, Miguel A.

Neutral theories have played a crucial and revolutionary role in fields such as population genetics and biogeography. These theories are critical by definition, in the sense that the overall growth rate of each single allele / species / type vanishes. Thus each species in a neutral model sits at the edge between invasion and extinction, allowing for the coexistence of symmetric / neutral types. However, in finite systems, mono-dominated states are ineluctably reached in relatively short times owing to demographic fluctuations, thus leaving us with an unsatisfactory framework to rationalize empirically-observed long-term coexistence. Here, we scrutinize the effect of heterogeneity in quasi-neutral theories, in which there can be a local mild preference for some of the competing species at some sites, even if the overall species symmetry is maintained. As we show here, mild biases at a small fraction of locations suffice to induce overall robust and durable species coexistence, even in regions arbitrarily far apart from the biased locations. This result stems from the long-range nature of the underlying critical bulk dynamics and has a number of implications, for example, in conservation ecology as it suggests that constructing local specific ‘sanctuaries’ for different competing species can result in global enhancement of biodiversity, even in regions arbitrarily distant from the protected refuges.

Krokhotin, Andrey Liwo, Adam Niemi, Antti J. Scheraga, Harold A.

A heterodimer consisting of two or more different kinds of proteins can display an enormous number of distinct molecular architectures. The conformational entropy is an essential ingredient in the Helmholtz free energy and, consequently, these heterodimers can have a very complex phase structure. Here, it is proposed that there is a state of proteins, in which the different components of a heterodimer exist in different phases. For this purpose, the structures in the protein data bank (PDB) have been analyzed, with radius of gyration as the order parameter. Two major classes of heterodimers with their protein components coexisting in different phases have been identified. An example is the PDB structure 3DXC. This is a transcriptionally active dimer. One of the components is an isoform of the intra-cellular domain of the Alzheimer-disease related amyloid precursor protein (AICD), and the other is a nuclear multidomain adapter protein in the Fe65 family. It is concluded from the radius of gyration that neither of the two components in this dimer is in its own collapsed phase, corresponding to a biologically active protein. The UNRES energy function has been utilized to confirm that, if the two components are separated from each other, each of them collapses. The results presented in this work show that heterodimers whose protein components coexist in different phases, can have intriguing physical properties with potentially important biological consequences. PMID: 22830730

Wilczynska, Maria M Condliffe, Alison M McKeon, Damian J

The presence of bronchiectasis (BR) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been recognized for many decades nevertheless, little research has been undertaken in this area. It is important to recognize that BR coexist with RA differs from the other types of BR. The purpose of this descriptive review was to delineate the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, pulmonary function testing, imaging, prognosis and management of concomitant BR and RA. To inform our study we searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and MEDLINE databases, using combinations of the following key words: computed tomography, lung function tests, rheumatoid arthritis, bronchiectasis, biological agents, and interstitial lung disease. The number of published papers covering this topic is limited, but several relevant conclusions can be drawn. Patients with concomitant RA and BR have worse obstructive airways disease, increased susceptibility to recurrent pulmonary infections, faster lung function decline, and higher mortality, compared with subjects with either RA or BR alone. The use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (both biological and non-biological) for RA in RA-BR patients imparts a further challenge in managing these patients. Although there are no published guidelines on the management of coexisting RA-BR, we have attempted to provide such recommendations, based on the literature review and our experience.

Grilli, Jacopo Adorisio, Matteo Suweis, Samir Barabás, György Banavar, Jayanth R Allesina, Stefano Maritan, Amos

The role of species interactions in controlling the interplay between the stability of ecosystems and their biodiversity is still not well understood. The ability of ecological communities to recover after small perturbations of the species abundances (local asymptotic stability) has been well studied, whereas the likelihood of a community to persist when the conditions change (structural stability) has received much less attention. Our goal is to understand the effects of diversity, interaction strengths and ecological network structure on the volume of parameter space leading to feasible equilibria. We develop a geometric framework to study the range of conditions necessary for feasible coexistence. We show that feasibility is determined by few quantities describing the interactions, yielding a nontrivial complexity-feasibility relationship. Analyzing more than 100 empirical networks, we show that the range of coexistence conditions in mutualistic systems can be analytically predicted. Finally, we characterize the geometric shape of the feasibility domain, thereby identifying the direction of perturbations that are more likely to cause extinctions.

Grilli, Jacopo Adorisio, Matteo Suweis, Samir Barabás, György Banavar, Jayanth R. Allesina, Stefano Maritan, Amos

The role of species interactions in controlling the interplay between the stability of ecosystems and their biodiversity is still not well understood. The ability of ecological communities to recover after small perturbations of the species abundances (local asymptotic stability) has been well studied, whereas the likelihood of a community to persist when the conditions change (structural stability) has received much less attention. Our goal is to understand the effects of diversity, interaction strengths and ecological network structure on the volume of parameter space leading to feasible equilibria. We develop a geometric framework to study the range of conditions necessary for feasible coexistence. We show that feasibility is determined by few quantities describing the interactions, yielding a nontrivial complexity – feasibility relationship. Analyzing more than 100 empirical networks, we show that the range of coexistence conditions in mutualistic systems can be analytically predicted. Finally, we characterize the geometric shape of the feasibility domain, thereby identifying the direction of perturbations that are more likely to cause extinctions. PMID: 28233768

Varada, Sowmya Gottlieb, Alice B Merola, Joseph F Saraiya, Ami R Tintle, Suzanne J

The coexistence of psoriasis and lupus erythematosus (LE) is rare. Anecdotal evidence suggests that anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) agents may be efficacious in LE, although their use is commonly avoided in this disease because of concern for lupus flare. We sought to describe the epidemiology, serologic findings, and therapeutic choices in patients with coexisting psoriasis / psoriatic arthritis and LE and to determine the risk of lupus flares with TNF-α inhibitors. We performed a retrospective multicenter study of patients given the diagnoses of psoriasis (or psoriatic arthritis) and lupus erythematosus (systemic LE or cutaneous LE, including either subacute cutaneous LE or discoid LE) at 2 academic tertiary-care centers. A total of 96 patients with a mean age of 56 years was included. We report higher-than-expected rates of white race and psoriatic arthritis. One clinical lupus flare was observed in a patient receiving a TNF-α inhibitor, resulting in an incidence of 0.92% lupus flares per patient-year of TNF-α inhibitor use. Retrospective chart review, small sample size, and limited documentation. Anti-TNF-α agents, ustekinumab, and abatacept may be valid treatment options for patients with concomitant LE and psoriasis. Clinical lupus flares in LE patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors were infrequent. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Jacobs, D. T. Kuhl, D. E. Selby, C. E.

The coexistence curve of the binary fluid mixture perfluoromethylcyclohexane-isopropyl alcohol was determined by precisely measuring the refractive index both above and below its upper critical consolute point. Sixty-seven two-phase data points were obtained over a wide range of reduced temperatures, 10 (exp -5) less than t less than 2.5 x 10 (exp -1), to determine the location of the critical point: critical temperature = 89.901 C, and critical composition = 62.2% by volume perfluoromethylcyclohexane. These data were analyzed to determine the critical exponent 8 close to the critical point, the amplitude B, and the anomaly in the diameter. The volume-fraction coexistence curve is found to be as symmetric as any composition like variable. Correction to scaling is investigated as well as the need for a crossover theory. A model is proposed that describes the asymptotic approach to zero of the effective exponent Beta, which allows an estimation of the temperature regime free of crossover effects.

Zhan, Liang-Tong Xu, Hui Chen, Yun-Min Lan, Ji-Wu Lin, Wei-An Xu, Xiao-Bing He, Pin-Jing

The high food waste content (HFWC) MSW at a landfill has the characteristics of rapid hydrolysis process, large leachate production rate and fast gas generation. The liquid-gas interactions at HFWC-MSW landfills are prominent and complex, and still remain significant challenges. This paper focuses on the liquid-gas interactions of HFWC-MSW observed from a large-scale bioreactor landfill experiment (5m × 5m × 7.5m). Based on the connected and quantitative analyzes on the experimental observations, the following findings were obtained: (1) The high leachate level observed at Chinese landfills was attributed to the combined contribution from the great quantity of self-released leachate, waste compression and entrapped gas. underwater. The contribution from gas entrapped underwater was estimated to be 21-28% of the total leachate level. (2) The gas entrapped underwater resulted in a reduction of hydraulic conductivity, decreasing by one order with an increase in gas content from 13% to 21%. (3) The "breakthrough value" in the gas accumulation zone was up to 11kPa greater than the pore liquid pressure. The increase of the breakthrough value was associated with the decrease of void porosity induced by overload loading. (4) The self-released leachate from HFWC-MSW was estimated to contribute to over 30% of the leachate production at landfills in Southern China. The drainage of leachate with a high organic loading in the rapid hydrolysis stage would lead to a loss of landfill gas (LFG) potential of 13%. Based on the above findings, an improved method considering the quantity of self-released leachate was proposed for the prediction of leachate production at HFWC-MSW landfills. In addition, a three-dimensional drainage system was proposed to drawdown the high leachate level and hence to improve the slope stability of a landfill, reduce the hydraulic head on a bottom liner and increase the collection efficiency for LFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Vinay, B Hari Mohan, Aditya Haritha, P Lakshmi, K Roja

Aspergillosis is a common systemic mycosis which affects immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. Aspergillus spp. Is wide spread in the environment in most countries, which renders an invasive form of disease. The presence of conidial heads are pathognomic to aspergillosis in diagnosis. Actinomycosis is a subacute-to-chronic infection that causes sinus fistula, tract or abscess due to the invasion surrounding the soft tissue. Cervicofacial infection accounts for 50% -60% of all actinomycosis cases. The mandible and nasopharynx are the sites of predilection, but maxillary infection is rare. Aspergillosis and Actinomycosis each of them was reported in case, but mixed infection of both organisms is rare, only one case has been reported. This paper discussed about a case report of coexistence of aspergillosis with actinomycosis in 38-year-old male.

Afroz, Nishat Shamim, Nida Jain, Anshu Soni, Mayank

Giant cell fibroblastoma (GCF) is a rare soft tissue tumor that occurs almost exclusively in children younger than 10 years of age and is mostly located in the superficial soft tissues of the back and thighs. We present a rare case of GCF with encephalocele in a 1.5-year-old boy who presented with a swelling in the occipital area of ​​the scalp since birth. CT scan suggested encephalocele without any suspicion of a mass injury. On histopathology, an ill-defined proliferation of fibroblasts in a heavily collagenised and focally myxoid stroma was seen containing numerous multinucleated cells having a floret-like appearance along with mature glial tissue bordering a cystic space. Immunohistochemically, the stromal cells were positive for both, vimentin (diffuse) and CD34 (focal) thereby confirming the histological diagnosis of GCF. This case highlights the unusual coexistence of GCF with congenital defects and its histogenetic resemblance to dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. PMID: 24728899

Kloor, H. Fischbach, E. Talmadge, C.

We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values ​​of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, more »one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range [lambda] extends from the subatomic scale ([lambda] [approx] 10 [sup [minus] 15] m) to the astrophysical scale ([lambda] [approx] 10 [sup 12] m). «less

Kang, Zhenye Mo, Jingke Yang, Gaoqiang.

Liquid / gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), which are located between the catalyst layer (CL) and bipolar plate (BP), play an important role in enhancing the performance of water splitting in proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cells (PEMECs). They are expected to transport electrons, heat, and reactants / products simultaneously with minimum voltage, current, thermal, interfacial, and fluidic losses. Here in this study, the thin titanium-based LGDLs with straight-through pores and well-defined pore morphologies are comprehensively investigated for the first time.The novel LGDL with a 400 μm pore size and 0.7 porosity achieved a best-ever performance of 1.66 V at 2 A cm -2 andmore »80 ° C, as compared to the published literature. The thin / well-tunable titanium based LGDLs remarkably reduce ohmic and activation losses, and it was found that porosity has a more significant impact on performance than pore size. In addition, an appropriate equivalent electrical circuit model has been established to quantify the effects of pore morphologies. The rapid electrochemical reaction phenomena at the center of the PEMEC are observed by coupling with high-speed and micro-scale visualization systems. Lastly, the observed reactions contribute reasonable and pioneering data that elucidate the effects of porosity and pore size on the PEMEC performance. This study can be a new guide for future research and development towards high-efficiency and low-cost hydrogen energy. «Less

Kota, Sunil Kumar Kota, Siva Krishna Meher, Lalit Kumar Jammula, Sruti Panda, Sandip Modi, Kirtikumar D.

Background: Pheochromocytoma / paragangliomas have been described to be associated with rare vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. Coexistence of physiologically significant renal artery lesions is a compounding factor that alters management and prognosis of pheochromocytoma patients. Apart from individual case reports, data on such association in Indian population is not available. The aim of this study is to find the nature and prevalence of associated vascular abnormalities. Materials and Methods: From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50 patients were diagnosed with pheochromocytoma / paragangliomas. Hospital charts of these patients were reviewed retrospectively to identify those with unusual vascular abnormalities. Available literature was also reviewed. Results: Of the 50 patients with pheochromocytoma, 7 (14%) had coexisting vascular lesions including renal artery stenosis in 4, aortoarteritis in 1, aortic aneurysm in 1 and inferior vena cava thrombosis in 1. Pheochromocytoma was adrenal in 42 and extra adrenal in 8. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was done in the patients. One patient with renal artery stenosis due to intimal fibrosis was subjected to percutaneous balloon angioplasty the other three improved after adrenalectomy and lysis of fibrous adhesive bands. The patient with aortoarteritos was treated with oral steroids. Inferior vena cava thrombosis was reversed with anticoagulants. The patient with abdominal aortic aneurysm was advised for annual follow-up on account of its size of 4.5 cm and asymptomatic presentation. Conclusion: There are multiple mechanisms that can lead to renal artery stenosis and other vascular abnormalities in a case of pheochromocytoma. A high index of suspicion is necessary to enable both entities to be diagnosed preoperatively and allow proper planning of surgical therapy. Incomplete diagnosis may lead to persistent hypertension postoperatively in a case of associated renal artery stenosis. PMID: 23226643

Suh, Alexander Weber, Claudia C. Kehlmaier, Christian Braun, Edward L. Green, Richard E. Fritz, Uwe Ray, David A. Ellegren, Hans

Hepadnaviridae are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect some species of birds and mammals. This includes humans, where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) are prevalent pathogens in considerable parts of the global population. Recently, endogenized sequences of HBVs (eHBVs) have been discovered in bird genomes where they constitute direct evidence for the coexistence of these viruses and their hosts from the late Mesozoic until present. Nevertheless, virtually nothing is known about the ancient host range of this virus family in other animals. Here we report the first eHBVs from crocodilian, snake, and turtle genomes, including an eHBV turtle that endogenized> 207 million years ago. This “fossil” genomic is> 125 million years older than the oldest avian eHBV and provides the first direct evidence that Hepadnaviridae already existed during the Early Mesozoic. This implies that the Mesozoic fossil record of HBV infection spans three of the five major groups of land vertebrates, namely birds, crocodilians, and turtles. We show that the deep phylogenetic relationships of HBVs are largely congruent with the deep phylogeny of their amniote hosts, which suggests an ancient amniote – HBV coexistence and codivergence, at least since the Early Mesozoic. Notably, the organization of overlapping genes as well as the structure of elements involved in viral replication has remained highly conserved among HBVs throughout that time span, except for the presence of the X gene. We provide multiple lines of evidence that the tumor-promoting X protein of mammalian HBVs lacks a homolog in all other hepadnaviruses and proposes a novel scenario for the emergence of X via segmental duplication and overprinting of pre-existing reading frames in the ancestor of mammalian HBVs . Our study reveals an unforeseen host range of prehistoric HBVs and provides novel insights into the genome evolution of hepadnaviruses throughout their long-lasting association with amniote hosts. PMID: 25501991

. SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while. coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive.

Barnard-Brak, Lucy Sulak, Tracey N. Fearon, Danielle D.

Objective: ADHD is a commonly diagnosed neuropsychological disorder among school-aged children with reported high rates of coexisting or comorbid disorders. As ADHD has been associated with academic underachievement, the current study examines this association in view of the presence of coexisting disorders. The purpose of the current study is to

. SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while. coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive.

. SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while. coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive.

. SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while. coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive.

. SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.113 Coexisting abdominal conditions. There are diseases of the digestive system, particularly within the abdomen, which, while. coexisting diseases in this area, as indicated in the instruction under the title “Diseases of the Digestive.

. potential joint coexistence plans, 3 ie, voluntary written plans specifying farming practices (such as. communication, planning, and crop-specific practices to facilitate successful coexistence. What tools and. in diverse agricultural systems, we are interested in hearing what practices and activities that.

Coexistence of twisted and untwisted crystals is explained via a model that accounts for the coupling of the entropic and energetic effects of impurities and a supra-lattice-scale structural order parameter. It is shown that twisted impure crystals can be in equilibrium with untwisted purer ones. The model explains how coexistence can occur in agates and other systems under hydrostatic stress. The model implies that untwisted crystals grown under one set of conditions could undergo a phase separation that, when accompanied by an imposed compositional gradient, leads to commonly observed, alternating bands of twisted and untwisted crystals and, when occurring in the absence of an external gradient , mossy patterns of crystal texture can emerge. This phenomenon is not related to anisotropic applied stress. Rather coexistence is a consequence of a compositional segregation / twist phase transition. Since twist coexistence is a compositional equilibrium, it arises from the exchange between bulk phases hence, the detailed nature of the atomic structure within an interface between twisted and untwisted zones is not relevant. The approach places crystal-twist phenomena within the theory of order / disorder phase transitions.

Synthetic solgel-derived Fo90 olivine was mixed with 3.5 wt% basaltic glass and hot-pressed within Ni / Fe foil to produce a dense aggregate expected to contain a small melt fraction at temperatures ≥ 1100 ° C. This specimen was precision ground and tested in both torsional and flexural forced oscillation to determine the relaxation behavior of both shear (G) and bulk (K) modules at seismic frequencies. A recent upgrade of our experimental facility allows such measurements to be made without alteration of the driver / detector geometry, and uses an oscillating bending force rather than a bending moment, as previously described. The torsional and flexural tests were conducted in a gas apparatus at 200 MPa confining pressure, with oscillation periods ranging between 1 and 1000 s, during slow staged-cooling from 1300 to 25 ° C. Shear modulus and associated dissipation data are consistent with those for melt-bearing olivine specimens previously tested in torsion, with a pronounced dissipation peak superimposed on high-temperature background within the 1-1000 s observational window at temperatures of 1100-1200 ° C. A filament elongation model relates the observed flexural measurements to the variations along the experimental assembly of the Young's modulus complex (E *), bending moment and diametral moment of inertia. With E * given by 1 / E * = 1 / (3G *) + 1 / (9K *), and the complex shear modulus (G *) derived from torsional oscillation, any relaxation of K can be identified. Preliminary modeling shows that the viscoelastic properties in flexure are broadly consistent with those expected from the shear-mode viscoelasticity with anharmonic (real) values ​​of K. However, some discrepancies between modeled results and flexure data at super-solid temperatures require further investigation of possible differences in shear modulus relaxation between the torsional and flexural modes, and of potential relaxation of the bulk modulus through stress-induced changes in melt redistribution and

Park, J. Garnsworthy, AB Krücken, R. Andreoiu, C. Ball, GC Bender, PC Chester, A. Close, A. Finlay, P. Garrett, PE Glister, J. Hackman, G. Hadinia, B. Leach, KG Rand, ET Sjue, S. Starosta, K. Svensson, CE Tardiff, E.

Shape coexistence between the strongly deformed ground state and the weakly deformed 02+ state in 98Sr has been a major topic of interest due to the energy difference of 215 keV, which is the smallest in all even-even nuclei. The electric monopole transition strength ρ2 (E 0) is an important quantity that can relate the deformation difference and the shape mixing between the two 0+ states, which are admixtures of the vibrational (S) and the rotational (D) states in a simple mixing model. In a β -decay spectroscopy experiment, the experimental ρ2 (E 0) was measured. A value of 0.053 (5) is consistent with the previous measurement and was combined with known electric quadrupole transition strengths B (E 2) in calculations of a two-state mixing model. Based on a systematic study on neighboring Kr, Zr, and Mo isotopes, the mixing of the 0+ and 2+ states in 98Sr was determined to be 8.6% and 1.3%, respectively, corresponding to deformation parameters βD = 0.38 (1) and βS = −0.23 (2). These parameters reproduce experimental transition strengths well except for the 41 + → 21 + transition, which suggests a smaller D-band deformation for J ≥4.

Weckerly, Floyd W. Ricca, Mark A.

Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

Improved devices mix gases and liquids into bubbly or foamy flows. Generates flowing, homogeneous foams or homogeneous dispersions of small, noncoalescing bubbles entrained in flowing liquids. Mixers useful in liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic electric-power generator, froth flotation in mining industry, wastewater treatment, aerobic digestion, and stripping hydrocarbon contaminants from ground water.

Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

Maldacena, Juan Simmons-Duffin, David Zhiboedov, Alexander

Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnosis of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore »locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1 + 1 dimensions by CFT methods. «Less

Maldacena, Juan Simmons-Duffin, David Zhiboedov, Alexander

Here, we consider Lorentzian correlators of local operators. In perturbation theory, singularities occur when we can draw a position-space Landau diagram with null lines. In theories with gravity duals, we can also draw Landau diagrams in the bulk. We also argue that certain singularities can arise only from bulk diagrams, not from boundary diagrams. As has been previously observed, these singularities are a clear diagnosis of bulk locality. We analyze some properties of these perturbative singularities and discuss their relation to the OPE and the dimensions of double-trace operators. In the exact nonperturbative theory, we expect no singularity at thesemore »locations. Finally, we prove this statement in 1 + 1 dimensions by CFT methods. «Less

Carmel-Neiderman, Narin Nard Wasserzug, Oshri Ziv-Baran, Tomer Oestreicher-Kedem, Yael

The study aimed (1) to evaluate the prevalence of sulcus vocalis (SV) coexisting with vocal fold polyp (SV-VFP), and (2) to determine the effect of their coexistence on voice quality. This is a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary referral center. The medical records of all patients who underwent micro direct laryngoscopy due to VFPs between January 2013 and April 2015 were reviewed. Patients with SV-VFP were identified and data of their demographics, medical history, habits, preoperative and intraoperative laryngeal findings, and pre- and postoperative GRBAS (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain) score, and compared with the data of patients. with solitary VFPs (S-VFPs). Eighty-nine patients were diagnosed with VFPs, 14 (15.7%) of whom were diagnosed with SV-VFPs. Patients with SV-VFPs had significantly lower incidence of concurrent leukoplakia (P = 0.01), higher incidence of contralateral vocal fold lesions (P = 0.04), increased voice roughness score postoperatively (P = 0.01) on the GRBAS score, and had a lower rate of cigarette smoking (P = 0.02) compared with patients with S-VFPs. The possibility of a hidden SV should be considered when detecting VFPs, particularly in patients with contralateral vocal fold lesions and without cigarette smoking history. Because the group of patients with SV-VFP presented with unique features, we suspect that the coexistence of VFPs and SVs is not incidental and that SVs may contribute to the formation of VFPs, possibly by alternating glottic airflow. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Revilla, Tomás A Křivan, Vlastimil

We use the optimal foraging theory to study coexistence between two plant species and a generalist pollinator. We compare conditions for plant coexistence for non-adaptive vs. adaptive pollinators that adjust their foraging strategy to maximize fitness. When pollinators have fixed preferences, we show that plant coexistence typically requires both weak competition between plants for resources (e.g., space or nutrients) and pollinator preferences that are not too biased in favor of either plant. We also show how plant coexistence is promoted by indirect facilitation via the pollinator. When pollinators are adaptive foragers, pollinator's diet maximizes pollinator's fitness measured as the per capita population growth rate. Simulations show that this has two conflicting consequences for plant coexistence. On the one hand, when competition between pollinators is weak, adaptation favors pollinator specialization on the more profitable plant which increases asymmetries in plant competition and makes their coexistence less likely. On the other hand, when competition between pollinators is strong, adaptation promotes generalism, which facilitates plant coexistence. In addition, adaptive foraging allows pollinators to survive sudden loss of the preferred plant host, thus preventing further collapse of the entire community.

Revilla, Tomás A. Křivan, Vlastimil

We use the optimal foraging theory to study coexistence between two plant species and a generalist pollinator. We compare conditions for plant coexistence for non-adaptive vs. adaptive pollinators that adjust their foraging strategy to maximize fitness. When pollinators have fixed preferences, we show that plant coexistence typically requires both weak competition between plants for resources (e.g., space or nutrients) and pollinator preferences that are not too biased in favor of either plant. We also show how plant coexistence is promoted by indirect facilitation via the pollinator. When pollinators are adaptive foragers, pollinator’s diet maximizes pollinator’s fitness measured as the per capita population growth rate. Simulations show that this has two conflicting consequences for plant coexistence. On the one hand, when competition between pollinators is weak, adaptation favors pollinator specialization on the more profitable plant which increases asymmetries in plant competition and makes their coexistence less likely.On the other hand, when competition between pollinators is strong, adaptation promotes generalism, which facilitates plant coexistence. In addition, adaptive foraging allows pollinators to survive sudden loss of the preferred plant host, thus preventing further collapse of the entire community. PMID: 27505254

Serra, Manuel Gómez, Africa

Despite their high morphological similarity, cryptic species often coexist in aquatic habitats presenting a challenge in the framework of niche differentiation theory and coexistence mechanisms. Here we use a rotifer species complex inhabiting highly unpredictable and fluctuating salt lakes to gain insights into the mechanisms involved in stable coexistence in cryptic species. We combined molecular barcoding surveys of planktonic populations and paleogenetic analysis of diapausing eggs to reconstruct the current and historical coexistence dynamics of two highly morphologically similar rotifer species, B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas. In addition, we carried out laboratory experiments using clones isolated from eight lakes where both species coexist to explore their clonal growth responses to salinity, a challenging, highly variable and unpredictable condition in Mediterranean salt lakes. We show that both species have co-occurred in a stable way in one lake, with population fluctuations in which no species was permanently excluded. The seasonal occurrence patterns of the plankton in two lakes agree with laboratory experiments showing that both species differ in their optimal salinity. These results suggest that stable species coexistence is mediated by differential responses to salinity and its fluctuating regime. We discuss the role of fluctuating salinity and a persistent diapausing egg banks as a mechanism for species coexistence in accordance with the ‘storage effect’. PMID: 21738691

Lipner, Shari R Scher, Richard K

Onychomycosis is a common nail infection that often co-exists with tinea pedis. Surveys have suggested the diseases co-exist in at least one third of patients, although actual numbers may be a lot higher due to significant under-reporting. The importance of evaluating and treating both diseases is being increasingly recognized, however, data on improved outcomes, and the potential to minimize re-infection are limited. We review a recent post hoc analysis of two large studies treating mild to moderate onychomycosis with efinaconazole topical solution, 10%, demonstrating that complete cure rates of onychomycosis are significantly improved when any co-existing tinea pedis is also treated.

. Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by inserting a long probe or thrusting the hand into the bulk as circumstances require in at least seven. 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bulk. 201.40 Section 201.40 Agriculture Regulations of.

. Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.40 Bulk. Bulk seeds or screenings shall be sampled by inserting a long probe or thrusting the hand into the bulk as circumstances require in at least seven. 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk. 201.40 Section 201.40 Agriculture Regulations of.

Jaeger, Frederike Matar, Omar K. Müller, Erich A.

The bulk viscosity of molecular models of gases and liquids is determined by molecular simulations as a combination of a dilute gas contribution, arising due to the relaxation of internal degrees of freedom, and a configurational contribution, due to the presence of intermolecular interactions. The dilute gas contribution is evaluated using experimental data for the relaxation times of vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. The configurational part is calculated using Green-Kubo relations for the fluctuations of the tensor pressure obtained from equilibrium microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. As a benchmark, the Lennard-Jones fluid is studied. Both atomistic and coarse-grained force fields for water, CO2, and n-decane are considered and tested for their accuracy, and where possible, compared to experimental data. The dilute gas contribution to the bulk viscosity is seen to be significant only in the cases when intramolecular relaxation times are in the μs range, and for low vibrational wave numbers (bulk viscosity reported for CO2. In all other cases studied, the dilute gas contribution is negligible and the configurational contribution dominates the overall behavior.In particular, the configurational term is responsible for the enhancement of the bulk viscosity near the critical point.

Garaud, Julien Corticelli, Alberto Silaev, Mihail Babaev, Egor

In multiband systems, such as iron-based superconductors, the superconducting states with locking and antilocking of the interband phase differences are usually considered as mutually exclusive. For example, a dirty two-band system with interband impurity scattering undergoes a sharp crossover between the s ± state (which favors phase antilocking) and the s ++ state (which favors phase locking). We discuss here that the situation can be much more complex in the presence of an external field or superconducting currents. In an external applied magnetic field, dirty two-band superconductors do not feature a sharp s ± → s ++ crossover but rather a washed-out crossover to a finite region in the parameter space where both s ± and s ++ states can coexist for example as a lattice or a microemulsion of inclusions of different states. The current-carrying regions such as the regions near vortex cores can exhibit an s ± state while it is the s ++ state that is favored in the bulk. This coexistence of both states can even be realized in the Meissner state at the domain's boundaries featuring Meissner currents. We demonstrate that there is a magnetic-field-driven crossover between the pure s ± and the s ++ states.

Zhang, Bo-Yu Fan, Song-Jia Li, Cong Zheng, Xiu-Deng Bao, Jian-Zhang Cressman, Ross Tao, Yi

Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent. Our experimental and theoretical results clearly show that the strategies allowing opting out against defection are able to maintain this stable coexistence.

Purohit, Ghanshyam Purshottamdas

Experimental investigations of static liquid fillets formed between small gaps of a cylindrical surface and a flat surface are carried out. The minimum volume of liquid required to form a stable fillet and the maximum liquid content the fillet can hold before becoming unstable are studied. Fillet shapes are captured in photographs obtained by a high speed image system. Experiments were conducted using water, UPA and PF 5060 on two surfaces — stand-blasted titanium and polished copper for different surface inclinations. Experimental data are generalized using appropriate non-dimensional groups. Analytical model are developed to describe the fillet curvature. Fillet curvature data are compared against model predictions and are found to be in close agreement. Bubble point experiments were carried out to measure the capillary pressure difference across the liquid-gas interface in the channels of photo-chemically etched disk stacks. Experiments were conducted using titanium stacks of five different geometric configurations. Both well wetting liquids (IPA and PF5060) and partially wetting liquid (water) were used during experiments. Test results are found to be in close agreement with analytical predictions. Experiments were carried out to measure the frictional pressure drop across the stack as a function of liquid flow rate using two different liquids (water and IPA) and five stacks of different geometric configurations. A channel pressure drop model is developed by treating the flow within stack channels as fully developed laminar flow between parallel plates and solving the one-dimensional Navier Stokes equation. An alternate model is developed by treating the flow in channels as flow within porous media. Expressions are developed for effective porosity and permeability for the stacks and the pressure drop is related to these parameters. Pressure drop test results are found to be in close agreement with model predictions. As a specific application of this work, a

PNNL, Fluor Corporation and Queens University (Kingston, ON) successfully completed a three-year comprehensive study of the CO2BOL water-lean solvent platform with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed solvent synthesis, characterization, environmental toxicology, physical, thermodynamic and kinetic property measurements, Aspen Plus ™ modeling and bench-scale testing of a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule. Key Program Findings The key program findings are summarized as follows: • PSAR favorably reduced stripper duties and reboiler temperatures with little / no impact to absorption column •> 90% CO2 capture was achievable at reasonable liquid-gas ratios in the absorber • High rich solvent viscosities (up to 600more »cP) were successfully demonstrated in the bench-scale system. However, the projected impacts of high viscosity to capital cost and operational limits compromised the other levelized cost of electricity benefits. • Low thermal conductivity of organics significantly increased the required cross exchanger surface area, and potentially other heat exchange surfaces. • CO2BOL had low evaporative losses during bench-scale testing • There was no evidence of foaming during bench scale testing • Current CO2BOL formulation costs project to be $ 35 / kg • Ecotoxicity (Water Daphnia) was comparable between CO2BOL and MEA (169.47 versus 103.63 mg / L) • Full dehydration of the flue gas was determined to not be economically feasible. However, modest refrigeration (13 MW for the 550 MW reference system) was determined to be potentially economically feasible, and still produce a water-lean condition for the CO2BOLs (5 wt% steady-state water loading). • CO2BOLs testing with 5 wt% water loading did not compromise anhydrous performance behavior, and showed actual enhancement of CO2 capture performance. • Mass transfer of CO2BOLs was not greatly impeded by viscosity • Easy separation of antisolvent from lean CO2BOL was

The McKinsey group at Yale has been awarded a grant from DTRA for the building of a Liquid Xenon Gamma Ray Color Camera (LXe-GRCC), which combines state-of-the-art detection of LXe scintillation light and time projection chamber (TPC) load readout. The DTRA application requires a movable detector and hence only a single phase (liquid) xenon detector can be considered in this case. We propose to extend the DTRA project to applications that allow a two phase (liquid / gas) xenon TPC. This entails additional (yet minimal) hardware and extension of the research effort funded by DTRA. The two phase detector will have bettermore »energy and angular resolution. Such detectors will be useful for PET medical imaging and detection of special nuclear material in stationary applications (e.g. port of entry). The expertise of the UConn group in gas phase TPCs will enhance the capabilities of the Yale group and the synergy between the two groups will be very beneficial for this research project as well as the education and research projects of the two universities. The LXe technology to be used in this project has matured rapidly over the past few years, developed for use in detectors for nuclear physics and astrophysics. This technology may now be applied in a straightforward way to the imaging of gamma rays. According to detailed Monte Carlo simulations recently performed at Yale University, energy resolution of 1% and angular resolution of 3 degrees may be obtained for 1.0 MeV gamma rays, using existing technology. With further research and development, energy resolution of 0.5% and angular resolution of 1.3 degrees will be possible at 1.0 MeV. Because liquid xenon is a high density, high Z material, it is highly efficient for scattering and capturing gamma rays. In addition, this technology scales elegantly to large detector areas, with several square meter apertures possible. The Yale research group is highly experienced in the development and use of noble liquid

Trejos, Víctor M. Gil-Villegas, Alejandro, E-mail: [email protected] Martinez, Alejandro

Saxena, G. Kumawat, M. Singh, U. K. Kaushik, M. Jain, S. K.

A systematic study has been performed to investigate the shape coexistence and shape transition for even-even nuclei between Z = 10-20 by employing Relativistic Mean-Filed plus BCS (RMF + BCS) approach. We calculate ground state properties viz. binding energy, deformation etc. for even-even nuclei to find the shape coexistence and shape transition. These results are found in agreement of recent experiments and consistent with other parameters of RMF and other theories.

Park, Junpyo Do, Younghae Huang, Zi-Gang Lai, Ying-Cheng

A fundamental result in the evolutionary-game paradigm of cyclic competition in spatially extended ecological systems, as represented by the classic Reichenbach-Mobilia-Frey (RMF) model, is that high mobility tends to hamper or even exclude species coexistence. This result was obtained under the hypothesis that individuals move randomly without taking into account the suitability of their local environment. We incorporate local habitat suitability into the RMF model and investigate its effect on coexistence. In particular, we hypothesize the use of an individual's "basic instinct" to determine its movement at any time step. That is, an individual is more likely to move when the local habitat becomes hostile and is no longer favorable for survival and growth. We show that, when such local habitat suitability is taken into account, robust coexistence can emerge even in the high-mobility regime where extinction is certain in the RMF model. A surprising finding is that coexistence is accompanied by the occurrence of substantial empty space in the system. Reexamination of the RMF model confirms the necessity and the important role of empty space in coexistence. Our study implies that adaptation / movements according to local habitat suitability are a fundamental factor to promote species coexistence and, consequently, biodiversity.

Letten, Andrew D Dhami, Manpreet K Ke, Po-Ju Fukami, Tadashi

Understanding the origins and maintenance of biodiversity remains one of biology’s grand challenges. From theory and observational evidence, we know that variability in environmental conditions through time is likely critical to the coexistence of competing species. Nevertheless, experimental tests of fluctuation-driven coexistence are rare and have typically focused on just one of two potential mechanisms, the temporal storage effect, to the neglect of the theoretically equally plausible mechanism known as relative nonlinearity of competition. We combined experiments and simulations in a system of nectar yeasts to quantify the relative contribution of the two mechanisms to coexistence. Resource competition models parameterized from single-species assays predicted the outcomes of mixed-culture competition experiments with 83% accuracy. Model simulations revealed that both mechanisms have measurable effects on coexistence and that relative nonlinearity can be equal or greater in magnitude to the temporal storage effect. In addition, we show that their effect on coexistence can be both antagonistic and complementary. These results falsify the common assumption that relative nonlinearity is of negligible importance, and in doing so reveal the importance of testing coexistence mechanisms in combination.

Hausch, Stephen Vamosi, Steven M Fox, Jeremy W

Intraspecific variation can promote or inhibit species coexistence, both by increasing species' competitive abilities, and by altering the relative strengths of intraspecific and interspecific competition. Effects of intraspecific variation on coexistence can occur via complementarity of different variants, and via a selection effect: initially-variable populations are more likely to contain highly competitive variants that might determine the ability of the population as a whole to both invade and resist invasion. We tested the effects of intraspecific variation and composition on coexistence by assaying the mutual invasibility of populations of two competing bean weevil species (Callosobruchus maculatus and C. chinensis) when each was initiated with one, three, or five genetically- and phenotypically-distinct lineages . Our results reveal that intraspecific variation is a double-edged sword for species coexistence. Increasing intraspecific variation increased species' abilities to invade, and to resist invasion, via selection effects and intraspecific niche complementarity among conspecific lineages, thereby creating the potential for exclusion among mismatched competitors. But intraspecific variation also increased the scope for resource partitioning, creating the potential for stable coexistence. Stable coexistence occurred only when intraspecific variation caused species to exhibit both relatively evenly-matched competitive abilities and sufficiently-strong resource partitioning. Our work explains the conflicting results of previous studies. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

Meemken, Fabian Müller, Philipp Hungerbühler, Konrad

Design and performance of a reactor set-up for attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy suitable for simultaneous reaction monitoring of bulk liquid and catalytic solid-liquid-gas interfaces under working conditions are presented. As advancement of in situ spectroscopy an operando methodology for gas-liquid-solid reaction monitoring was developed that simultaneously combines catalytic activity and molecular level detection at the catalytically active site of the same sample. Semi-batch reactor conditions are achieved with the analytical set-up by implementing the ATR-IR flow-through cell in a recycle reactor system and integrating a specifically designed gas feeding system coupled with a bubble trap. By the usemore »of only one spectrometer the design of the new ATR-IR reactor cell allows for simultaneous detection of the bulk liquid and the catalytic interface during the working reaction. Holding two internal reflection elements (IRE) the sample compartments of the horizontally movable cell are consecutively flushed with reaction solution and pneumatically actuated, rapid switching of the cell (bulk liquid on a blank IRE. For a complex heterogeneous reaction, the asymmetric hydrogenation of 2 , 2,2-trifluoroacetophenone on chirally modified Pt catalyst the elucidation of catalytic activity / enantioselectivity coupled with simultaneous monitoring of the catalytic solid-liquid-gas interface is shown.Both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the experimental conditions. The opportunity to gain improved understanding by coupling measurements of catalytic performance and spectroscopic detection is presented. In addition, the applicability of modulation excitation spectroscopy and phase-sensitive detection are demonstrated. «Less

Werfel, F. N. Delor, U. Floegel- Rothfeld, R. Riedel, T. Wippich, D. Goebel, B. Schirrmeister, P.

We investigate and review concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductors in mobile application. ATZ's compact HTS bulk magnets can trap routinely 1 T @ 77 K. Except of magnetization, flux creep and hysteresis, industrial - like properties as compactness, power density, and robustness are of major device interest if mobility and light-weight construction is in focus . For mobile application in levitated trains or demonstrator magnets we examine the performance of on-board cryogenics either by LN2 or cryo-cooler application. The mechanical, electrical and thermodynamical requirements of compact vacuum cryostats for Maglev train operation were studied systematically. More than 30 units are manufactured and tested. The attractive load to weight ratio is more than 10 and favors group module device constructions up to 5 t load on permanent magnet (PM) track. A transportable and compact YBCO bulk magnet cooled with in-situ 4 Watt Stirling cryo-cooler for 50 - 80 K operation is investigated. Low cooling power and effective HTS cold mass drives the system construction to a minimum - thermal loss and light-weight design.

Kikwaya, J.-B. Campbell-Brown, M. Brown, P. G.

Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamic and physical density values ​​expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamic evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01 ° per pixel to 0.05 ° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analyzed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P / Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

It is well known that dispersal from localities favorable to a species' growth and reproduction (sources) can prevent competitive exclusion in unfavorable localities (sinks). What is perhaps less well known is that too much emigration can undermine the viability of sources and cause regional competitive exclusion. Here, I investigate two biological mechanisms that reduce the cost of dispersal to source communities. The first involves increasing the spatial variation in the strength of competition such that sources can withstand high rates of emigration the second involves reducing emigration from sources via density-dependent dispersal. I compare how different forms of spatial variation and modes of dispersal influence source viability, and hence source-sink coexistence, under dominance and pre-emptive competition. A key finding is that, while spatial variation substantially reduces dispersal costs under both types of competition, density-dependent dispersal does so only under dominance competition. For instance, when spatial variation in the strength of competition is high, coexistence is possible (regardless of the type of competition) even when sources experience high emigration rates when spatial variation is low, coexistence is restricted even under low emigration rates. Under dominance competition, density-dependent dispersal has a strong effect on coexistence. For instance, when the emigration rate increases with density at an accelerating rate (Type III density-dependent dispersal), coexistence is possible even when spatial variation is quite low when the emigration rate increases with density at a decelerating rate (Type II density-dependent dispersal), coexistence is restricted even when spatial variation is quite high. Under pre-emptive competition, density-dependent dispersal has only a marginal effect on coexistence. Thus, the diversity-reducing effects of high dispersal rates persist under pre-emptive competition even when dispersal is density

Laird, Robert A Schamp, Brandon S

Intransitive competition occurs when competing strategies cannot be listed in a hierarchy, but rather form loops — as in the game rock-paper-scissors. Due to its cyclic competitive replacement, competitive intransitivity promotes strategy coexistence, both in rock-paper-scissors and in higher-richness communities. Previous work has shown that this intransitivity-mediated coexistence is strongly influenced by spatially explicit interactions, compared to when populations are well mixed. Here, we extend and broaden this line of research and examine the impact on coexistence of intransitive competition taking place on a continuum of small-world networks linking spatial lattices and regular random graphs. We use simulations to show that the positive effect of competitive intransitivity on strategy coexistence holds when competition occurs on networks toward the spatial end of the continuum. However, in networks that are sufficiently disordered, increasingly violent fluctuations in strategy frequencies can lead to extinctions and the prevalence of monocultures. We further show that the degree of disorder that leads to the transition between these two regimes is positively dependent on population size indeed for very large populations, intransitivity-mediated strategy coexistence may even be possible in regular graphs with completely random connections. Our results emphasize the importance of interaction structure in determining strategy dynamics and diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Pastor, Raffaele Coniglio, Antonio Ciamarra, Massimo Pica

One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the heterogeneous dynamics of glasses postulates the temporary coexistence of two phases characterized by a high and by a low diffusivity. In this scenario, two phases with different diffusivities coexist for a time of the order of the relaxation time and mix afterwards. Unfortunately, it is difficult to measure the single-particle diffusivities to test this hypothesis. Indeed, although the non-Gaussian shape of the van-Hove distribution suggests the transient existence of a diffusivity distribution, it is not possible to infer from this quantity whether two or more dynamic phases coexist. Here we provide the first direct observation of the dynamic coexistence of two phases with different diffusivities, by showing that in the deeply supercooled regime the distribution of the single-particle diffusivities acquires a transient bimodal shape. We relate this distribution to the heterogeneity of the dynamics and to the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation, and we show that the coexistence of two dynamical phases occurs up to a timescale growing faster than the relaxation time on cooling, for some of the considered models. Our work offers a basis for rationalizing the dynamics of supercooled liquids and for relating their structural and dynamic properties.

Paliwal, Siddharth Rodenburg, Jeroen van Roij, René Dijkstra, Marjolein

We derive a microscopic expression for a quantity μ that plays the role of chemical potential of active Brownian particles (ABPs) in a steady state in the absence of vortices. We show that μ consists of (i) an intrinsic chemical potential similar to passive systems, which depends on density and self-propulsion speed, but not on the external potential, (ii) the external potential, and (iii) a newly derived one -body swim potential due to the activity of the particles. Our simulations on ABPs show good agreement with our Fokker-Planck calculations, and confirm that μ (z) is spatially constant for several inhomogeneous active fluids in their steady states in a planar geometry. Finally, we show that phase coexistence of ABPs with a planar interface satisfies not only mechanical but also diffusive equilibrium. The coexistence can be well-described by equating the bulk chemical potential and bulk pressure obtained from bulk simulations for systems with low activity but requires explicit evaluation of the interfacial contributions at high activity.

Nurge, Mark Monje, Oscar Prenger, Jessica Catechis, John

Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of ​​media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

. 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings. 172.514 Section 172.514. SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.514 Bulk packagings. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each person who offers for transportation a bulk packaging which contains a hazardous material.

Hatayama, Nobukuni Konno, Rikio

The temperature dependence of thermal expansion of coexistence of ferromag-netism and superconductivity below the superconducting transition temperature Tc ↑ of a majority spin conduction band is investigated. Majority spin and minority spin superconducting gaps exist in the coexistent state. We assume that the Curie temperature is much larger than the superconducting transition temperatures. The free energy that Linder et al. [Phys. Rev. B76, 054511 (2007)] derived is used. The thermal expansion of coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity is derived by the application of the method of Takahashi and Nakano [J. Phys .: Condens. Matter 18, 521 (2006)]. We find that we have the anomalies of the thermal expansion in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperatures.

Krawiec, Paulina Pawłowska-Kamieniak, Agnieszka Pac-Kożuchowska, Elżbieta Mroczkowska-Juchkiewcz, Agnieszka Kominek, Katarzyna

Celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease are chronic inflammatory conditions of gastrointestinal tract with complex aetiology with genetic, environmental and immunological factors contributing to its pathogenesis. It was noted that immune-mediated disorders often coexist. There is a well-known association between celiac disease and type 1 diabetes and ulcerative colitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. However, growing body of literature suggests the association between celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease, particularly ulcerative colitis. This is an extremely rare problem in pediatric gastroenterology. To date there have been reported several cases of children with coexisting celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Herewith we present review of current literature on coexistence of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease in children. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

Zhu, Haoqi Wang, Maoxiang Hu, Fenglan

Based on Lotka-Volterra (LV) system with spatial diffusion we study a self-regulating species, whose interactions can change with the other's population size. These interactions can be divided into four types described by the interaction portrait. The activity of self-regulation in population also depends on the opposite species, when the opposite species is strong competitive, the self-regulating species cannot adjust its population actively until the roles reverse. Furthermore the way of coexistence with self-regulating system, including competition- coexistence and parasitism- coexistence is discussed it suggests that proper competition is better to acquire larger total population than a single sacrifice as a host. Moreover both self-regulation and spatial diffusion may be opportunities to switch the final surviving species, but self-regulation can result into a stable situation and promote diversity, in accordance with Darwin's theory of evolution.

Park, Junpyo Do, Younghae Jang, Bongsoo Lai, Ying-Cheng

Evolutionary games of cyclic competitions have been extensively studied to gain insights into one of the most fundamental phenomena in nature: biodiversity that seems to be excluded by the principle of natural selection. The Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS) game of three species and its extensions [e.g., the Rock-Paper-Scissors-Lizard-Spock (RPSLS) game] are paradigmatic models in this field. In all previous studies, the intrinsic symmetry associated with cyclic competitions imposes a limitation on the resulting coexistence states, leading to only selective types of such states. We investigate the effect of nonuniform intraspecific competitions on coexistence and find that a wider spectrum of coexistence states can emerge and persist. This surprising finding is substantiated using three classes of cyclic game models through stability analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and continuous spatiotemporal dynamic evolution from partial differential equations. Our finding indicates that intraspecific competitions or alternative symmetry-breaking mechanisms can promote biodiversity to a broader extent than previously thought.

The requirement of unmanned aircraft systems in civil areas is growing. However, provisioning of flight efficiency and safety of unmanned aircraft has critical requirements on wireless communication spectrum resources. Current researches mainly focus on spectrum availability. In this paper, the unmanned aircraft system communication models, including the coverage model and data rate model, and two coexistence analysis procedures, ie the interference and noise ratio criterion and frequency-distance-direction criterion, are proposed to analyze spectrum requirements and interference results. of the civil unmanned aircraft systems at low altitudes. In addition, explicit explanations are provided. The proposed coexistence analysis criteria are applied to assess unmanned aircraft systems' uplink and downlink interference performances and to support corresponding spectrum planning. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed assessments and analysis procedures satisfy requirements of flexible spectrum accessing and safe coexistence among multiple unmanned aircraft systems.

Watson-Jones, Rachel And Busch, Justin T To Tie, Cristine H

Natural and supernatural explanations are used to interpret the same events in a number of predictable and universal ways. Yet little is known about how variation in diverse cultural ecologies influences how people integrate natural and supernatural explanations. Here, we examine explanatory coexistence in three existentially arousing domains of human thought: illness, death, and human origins using qualitative data from interviews conducted in Tanna, Vanuatu. Vanuatu, a Melanesian archipelago, provides a cultural context ideal for examining variation in explanatory coexistence due to the lack of industrialization and the relatively recent introduction of Christianity and Western education. We argue for the integration of interdisciplinary methodologies from cognitive science and anthropology to inform research on explanatory coexistence. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

Eames, Ken T D Keeling, Matt J

The coexistence of different pathogen strains has implications for pathogen variability and disease control and has been explained in a number of different ways. We use contact networks, which represent interactions between individuals through which infection could be transmitted, to investigate strain coexistence. For sexually transmitted diseases the structure of contact networks has received detailed study and has been shown to be a vital determinant of the epidemiological dynamics.By using analytical pairwise models and stochastic simulations, we demonstrate that network structure also has a profound influence on the interaction between pathogen strains. In particular, when the population is serially monogamous, fully cross-reactive strains can coexist, with different strains dominating in network regions with different characteristics. Furthermore, we observe specialization of different strains in different risk groups within the network, suggesting the existence of diverging evolutionary pressures.

Piezoelectric composites can be created using nonpiezoelectric materials, by exploiting flexoelectricity. This is by definition the linear response of polarization to strain gradient, and is symmetry-allowed even in elemental crystals. However, the basic issue whether flexoelectricity is a bulk or a surface material property is open. We mention that the analogous issue about piezoelectricity is nontrivial either. ^ 1 In this first attempt towards a full theory of flexoelectricity we prove that, for a simple class of strain and strain gradients, flexoelectricity is indeed a bulk effect. The key ingredients of the present theory are the long-range perturbations linearly induced by a unit displacement of a single nucleus in an otherwise perfect crystal: to leading order these are dipolar, quadrupolar, and octupolar. The corresponding tensors have rank 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Considering dipoles and quadrupoles provide the piezoelectric response, ^ 1 we show that dipoles and octupoles provide the flexoelectric response in nonpiezoelectric crystals. We conjecture that the full dipole and octupole tensors provide the flexoelectric response to the most general form of strain gradient. Our problem has a close relationship to the one of the `` absolute '' deformation potentials, which is based on a similar kind of dipolar and octupolar tensors. ^ 2 ^ 1 R. M. Martin, Phys. Rev. B 5, 1607 (1972). ^ 2 R. Resta, L. Colombo and S. Baroni, Phys. Rev. B 41, 12538 (1990).

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a highly polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) that exhibits six double bonds in the hydrocarbon tail. It induces phase separation of the membrane into liquid order and liquid disorder in mixtures containing other lipids with more saturation and cholesterol. With the utilization of atomic force microscopy, phase co-existence is observed in lipid mixtures containing DHA on a single supported lipid bilayer. The boundary of phase co-existence with decreasing DHA concentration is explored. The elastic force, thickness, and roughness of the different phases are investigated.


Yeast roll with poppy seeds - incredibly fine, juicy and soft!

The poppy seed roll is delicious, delicate, juicy, soft and maintains its freshness for a long time. It consists of a thin layer of dough and a lot of filling. Try to prepare it! It's pretty simple! You won t regret!

INGREDIENT:

For the dough:

-160 g of flour (a 250 ml glass)

-2 teaspoons of dry yeast

-a teaspoon of vanilla sugar.

For poppy seed filling:

-minded cinnamon - to taste.

METHOD OF PREPARATION:

1. Carefully separate the egg whites from the yolks.

2.Prepare the dough: mix the dry yeast with a teaspoon of sugar. Add the warm milk and mix until smooth. Let the composition rest for 10 minutes.

3. Melt the butter and let it cool.

4.Put the yolks, remaining sugar, salt and vanilla sugar in the bowl, in which you will knead the dough. Stir until smooth.

5.Add the activated yeast and mix.

6. Gradually add the sifted flour and mix with a spoon. Once you have completely incorporated it and the dough will become thicker, add the melted and cooled butter. Mix with a spoon until smooth. The dough will look quite liquid and will be sticky.

7. Knead it with your hands for 10-12 minutes. It will become smooth, homogeneous and less sticky.

8. Shape the dough into a ball and place it in a deep bowl, sprinkled with flour. Cover it with a clean kitchen towel and leave it to rise for 1.5 hours. He has to double his volume.

9. In the meantime prepare the filling: completely cover the poppy seeds with boiling water. Cover them with a lid and let them simmer for 30 minutes.

10.Then transfer them to a strainer and drain as much liquid as possible from them.

11.Mix the poppy seeds with the sugar, then pass them twice through the meat grinder, mounting the smallest sieve (you can use the grinder for this purpose).

12. Cover the raisins with boiling water and let them simmer for 5 minutes. Wash them and dry them very well with a clean towel. Crush them a little with a knife.

13.Add honey, soft butter (at room temperature), prepared raisins and a little ground cinnamon in the poppy seeds composition. Mix very well.

14.When the dough is ready, beat the egg whites with the mixer until persistent peaks appear. Then incorporate them into the poppy seed filling, stirring carefully.

15.Model the roll: place the leavened dough on the table sprinkled with flour. Knead it a little, then spread it in a rectangular top, 3-4 mm thick.

16. Spread the filling on the counter, leaving a free space of 2 cm at each edge.

17. Roll the worktop into a compact roll. Bend her heads under her.

18.Place the roll on a piece of baking paper and wrap it 2-3 times in it, leaving a free space of 5-10 mm between them, which allows the roll to grow during baking. Due to this coating, the roll acquires a more rounded shape. Place it on the tray and let it rest for 10 minutes.

19. Bake the roll for 30-35 minutes in the preheated oven to 190 ° C. Allow to cool slightly, then remove from the baking paper. Place it on the grill and wait until it cools completely.

20. Sprinkle the roll with powdered sugar.

21.Cut it into thin slices and serve it with great pleasure.

As you can see, our roll has cracked a little. This does not always happen. This time you may have spread the dough into a too thin top, added too much filling, or rolled the top too compactly (or all of it together). The poppy seed roll is incredibly tasty and the cracks do not affect its taste. It simply melts in your mouth! We recommend that you prepare it!


Simit - Turkish pretzels with sesame or poppy seeds

Preparation time 30 minutes

Cooking time 30 minutes

Ingredients

  • 250 g flour
  • 10 g fresh yeast or 4 g dry
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 155 ml of water
  • 3 tablespoons molasses (pekmez) or honey + 3 tablespoons water
  • 100 g susan
  • 1 tablespoon grated with sugar


PREPARATION Simit & # 8211 Turkish pretzels with sesame or poppy seeds
1. I put flour and salt in a bowl. Rub the fresh yeast with the sugar until it liquefies and mix with water. The dry one dissolves directly in water. The liquid together with the flour can be kneaded on the robot or by hand. The goal is to become a non-stick ball, without overdoing it.

2. Leave to rise for an hour, until it doubles in volume, covering the vessel with a towel and stored in a warm place, away from currents.
3. I browned the sesame over a moderate to high heat, always stirring because it can easily burn. As it started to smoke, I stopped the fire and let it bake from the heat of the pan, stirring often at first.

4. After leavening, take the dough out on the lightly floured top, knead it and then put it in 4. I formed some ovoids.

5. I measured the width of the worktop with a ruler and determined how much 60 cm means. I formed by rolling a 60 cm long cord between my palms. The harder it is to roll it on the counter, the easier it is to stretch in your hands. Then I bent it to fit the ends and twisted as in the picture below. I formed the pretzel by sealing the ends well with my fingers.

6. In a plate I dissolved the honey in 3 tablespoons of water, not having molasses with which it comes out better. I dipped the pretzel in syrup on both sides, then it is recommended to let it drain for 2-3 minutes so that it does not burn at the base. I put it well in sesame seeds and placed it in a baking tray lined with paper.

7. Leave to rise for 30 minutes and then bake in the preheated oven at 200 degrees for 20 minutes. For old ovens with doors that do not close tightly, browning takes longer, I recommend reducing the fire to 180 degrees so that it does not burn at the base, lasting longer.

They are good warm, have a thick and crunchy skin, being soft in the middle, but do not last more than 24 hours, then they harden with each passing day. They can be eaten plain or as I said above for breakfast, with jams or cheese, or with tea and other cheeses.
Liv (e) it!

Maybe you will also like the croissant homemade rolls & gt & gt & gt recipe, here!

Or these sweet buns with apple and raisins & gt & gt & gt recipe


CAKE TABLE WITH POPPY

I really like poppy seeds and I use it whenever I have the opportunity. I put it in this one too cake top with poppy seeds which I used for a delicious cake. It gave it a pleasant taste and a beautiful appearance.

If you are a poppy fan, I invite you to try it, it is very simple and easy to do.

  • for a shape 22 cm in diameter
  • 4 eggs
  • 125 g sugar
  • 125 g flour
  • 2 tablespoons poppy seeds
  • vanilla
  • a pinch of salt

How to prepare cake top with poppy seeds

In a bowl put whole eggs, salt, vanilla and sugar. Mix for 7-8 minutes until the composition becomes consistent, fluffy and light in color.

Sift the flour and then mix it with the poppy seeds. Then incorporate it in two turns to the egg, mixing gently, from top to bottom, with delicate movements.

Grease with butter and line with flour a form with a removable ring of 22 cm and turn the dough, leveling it well. Try to pour evenly, not only in the middle, so the top will not grow much in the middle.

Bake for 25-30 minutes at 180 ° or until it passes the toothpick test. Remove the countertop and leave it to cool on a grill.

Then cut it into 2 or 3 sheets. I always make it the day before, it cuts much better. Enjoy!

If you find yourself in the taste of the recipes on this blog, I am waiting for you every day on facebook page. You will find there many recipes posted, new ideas and discussions with those interested.

* You can also sign up for Recipes group of all kinds. There you will be able to upload your photos with tried and tested dishes from this blog. We will be able to discuss menus, food recipes and much more. However, I urge you to follow the group's rules!

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Turkish Katlama with poppy seeds: we assure you it's a magic recipe! It cooks in just 20 minutes.

& # 8220Katlama & # 8221 is a sweet cake from Turkish cuisine, made from unleavened dough, it is layered, with a crispy top and a lot of poppy seed filling. If desired, you can add nuts to the filling. This cake has a divine aroma and an exceptional taste. Try to prepare it to convince yourself how tasty this Turkish delicacy is.

INGREDIENTS

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Prepare the poppy for the filling. Sprinkle the poppy seeds in a dry, hot pan and fry, stirring until a pleasant aroma appears. Take it off the heat, sprinkle it in a bowl and mix it with 150 g of sugar.

2. Dough. Melt 50 g of butter, add the remaining sugar (20 g) and salt. Pour the milk and mix until smooth. Add the egg and stir again.

3. Gradually sprinkle the flour and knead a stiff dough that does not stick to your hands. Spread the dough in a layer no more than 3 mm thick. Melt 150 g of butter and grease the layer abundantly. Place the poppy seeds with sugar evenly on top.

4. Bend the edges of the dough towards the center, grease the dough with butter and sprinkle it with poppy seeds, then fold the dough in half (along). Repeat the procedure with butter and poppy seeds and fold the dough crosswise.

5. Move the katlama into shape and bake at 180-200 degrees for 20-30 minutes.


Studies have shown that poppy seeds cure osteoporosis and have many other benefits for the body

Poppy, called suggestive and sleepy, for its calming and sedative effects, has been used as a remedy since ancient times, proving its effectiveness in treating asthma, liver disease, angina pectoris and migraines.

Considered small medicinal plants, poppy seeds can boast a rich content of minerals (iodine, manganese, magnesium, copper, zinc) that turn them into a source of natural energy for the body.

A whole range of healing substances, including lecithin, oxalic acid and alkaloids, which help to increase the enzymes and fatty acids already present in the human body, also contribute to the proper functioning of the body.

Poppy seeds cure osteoporosis

With a content of 73% linoleic acid, 10% palmitic acid, 13% oleic acid and phosphorus, poppy seeds help strengthen the bone system.

The composition of poppy seeds, rich in phosphorus, helps to better absorb calcium in the body. All this turns the poppy into an excellent remedy against osteoporosis, a disease of the bones, which until a century ago was considered a normal condition of the elderly.

What is osteoporosis?

A condition characterized by the presence of bone demineralization, associated with compromised trabecular bone structure, a condition that predisposes the bone to fracture following a low-intensity trauma or even in its absence.

It occurs mainly in women during menopause, but also in men who consume excessive alcohol or tobacco, it can also occur as a secondary determination of more serious diseases, such as systemic (polyarthritis, systemic lupus, ankylosing spondylitis ) or certain forms of cancer.

Study - Poppy fights bone atrophy

This miraculous property of the poppy, namely, to combat bone atrophy, was discovered by chance, with the transmutation of the bones of an old cemetery, located in an abandoned hamlet in Slovakia.

What drew the researchers' attention was that the bones of the deceased showed no signs of osteoporosis. And because the inhabitants of the region were poppy growers, it was hypothesized that such a plant could be a remedy to combat bone disease.

Based on this assumption, the scientists conducted a study on two groups of women affected by osteoporosis.

Patients in the first group were given classic medicines to fight osteoporosis for 1 year, while the rest of the patients were given various poppy preparations.

After 12 months, the researchers were surprised to find that patients who had been treated with poppy seeds were completely cured of the disease, while the rest of the women were still suffering from osteoporosis.

Recipe with poppy seeds against osteoporosis

ingredients

10 gr. dried poppy seeds, a cup of boiling water, a tablespoon of honey

Method of preparation

Pour boiling water over the dried poppy seeds, cover the container, and when the liquid reaches a temperature of 40 degrees Celsius, add the honey.Mix well, then cover the pot, leave to cool, then strain.

Administration method

One tablespoon of this preparation (liquid) should be administered 2-3 times a day after main meals. Cures are given for a maximum of 2 weeks, for a period of 1 year.


How to make these traditional braided rolls for carolers & # 8211 rolls for Christmas and New Year?

How is the dough prepared for the rolls?

For the dough, mix the yeast, sugar, warm milk and 300 g of flour. Leave on the table for 10 minutes. After 10 minutes, add the rest of the ingredients (yolks, warm melted butter, salt, vanilla, lemon peel), less flour. Mix with the robot or wooden spoon until everything is homogeneous and then gradually add the rest of the flour.

We obtain a homogeneous dough, easy to work and which does not stick. Leave to rise in a warm place for 40 minutes. I cover the vessel with a bag. How beautifully the dough has risen!


Ingredients Baigli & # 8211 bejgli & # 8211 Hungarian with poppy seeds and walnuts:

  • 1 kg. of white flour (we used Hungarian flour 550, it is important that for this dough we use a flour with a minimum of 9.5% protein, find the information on the package)
  • 300 grams of butter
  • 200 grams of lard
  • 4 yolks
  • 200 ml. of milk
  • 200 grams of sugar
  • 2 tablespoons sour cream (sour, not whipped cream)
  • 40 grams of yeast
  • 2 sachets of vanilla sugar
  • peel of 1 lemon and 1 orange (or 2 lemons)
  • 1 tablespoon of rum
  • 1 teaspoon grated salt
  • 250 grams of ground poppy seeds + 250 grams of ground walnuts (or 500 grams of either)
  • 400 grams of sugar (which will be divided between the two different fillings)
  • 2 sachets of vanilla sugar
  • 200 ml. milk (the same, divided between the two different fillings)
  • 4 egg whites
  • peel of 1 lemon (in poppy seed filling)
  • optional: 40 ml. of rum (in walnut filling)

Preparation of dough for Hungarian baigli & # 8211 bejgli & # 8211 with poppy seeds and walnuts:

First, a "family picture" with the ingredients, in the lower left you can see the yeast from the yeast already activated (I mixed the yeast with 1 tablespoon of sugar until liquefied, I added lukewarm milk and 2-3 tablespoons of the total amount of flour I waited a few minutes for the yeast to blister).

If you knead the dough by hand, pour the flour, sugar, salt and lemon zest into a bowl. Add all the fat (butter and lard) and rub the fat well with the flour until it becomes a homogeneous mass with a sandy appearance. Then add the mayonnaise and the beaten egg yolks and then the rum. Knead quickly until a homogeneous dough is obtained.

But I did this: I beat the yolks with salt and sugar. I added the rum and all the soft fat at room temperature. I mixed the yolks with the butter and lard using the mixer. After homogenization, I added the cream and incorporated it well into the composition. I poured this mixture into the pan of the bread machine. I poured the activated mayonnaise on top, then I put the flour and the citrus peel.

I put the tub in the car and set the short kneading program. With a little help, (I stopped the machine a few times and turned the dough upside down) the bread machine quickly kneaded my smooth dough.

2. Quickly shape the dough into a ball (or rather a cannonball, because it is large). Wrap and refrigerate for 30 minutes. It is very important to keep the dough cold, so that it does not leaven excessively, in which case it will crack a lot when baked.

Preparation of Hungarian baigli & # 8211 bejgli & # 8211 fillets with poppy seeds and walnuts

Prepare the fillings while the dough is in the fridge.

3. The milk is divided into two saucepans (for each filling 100 ml each). Bring the milk to the boil with the sugar evenly divided, at 2. When the sugar dissolves, add the walnuts and the ground poppy in each saucepan. Stir vigorously until a thick, pasty composition is formed.

4. Remove from the heat, add 1 sachet of vanilla sugar to each of the fillings. In the walnut filling, add (optionally) a spoonful of rum essence and in the poppy seeds grated lemon peel (only the yellow part, intensely flavored). Mix well. Whisk the egg whites and divide between the two compositions, mixing well. Finally, the fillings should have a sticky consistency without flowing.

Assembly and baking

5. Turn on the oven and set it at 180 degrees Celsius.

6. Take the dough out of the fridge and place it on the work surface sprinkled with flour. Divide the dough into 8 equal parts. We keep on the work surface only the piece of dough we are going to work with, we put the others in the fridge. On each side, roll out a rectangle of dough of approximately 22 x 28 cm with the rolling pin. (the sheet should be 3-4 mm thin. maximum) which is greased with the filling.

7. Fold the shorter sides inwards by about 2-3 cm. so as not to let the filling come out, then roll the cake tightly.

8. Place 4 baigli in the tray & # 8211 in which I laid a sheet of baking paper & # 8211 and grease on top with beaten egg yolk with 2-3 tablespoons of water. Prick from place to place, with a fork or a skewer stick, piercing the cakes from top to bottom. This will help limit excessive cracking during baking.

9. Place the tray in a cool place (a cool pantry or even in the refrigerator) for 5-6 minutes, until the yolk on the surface is slightly wilted. After this very short waiting time, place the tray in the preheated oven at 180 degrees Celsius. Bake for about 30 minutes, brown well and bake inside (try with a toothpick).

It is absolutely natural for this extremely fragile cake to crack from place to place during baking. To limit cracking, observe points 2 and 8.

Service

Before cutting, the baigli must be completely cooled. Therefore, let the baked cozonacs cool, preferably on a cake rack.

After cooling, these unspeakable cakes can be wrapped in food foil (individually) and kept in a cool place (pantry) as soft as the day they were baked, I would say they are even more good. I kept them for a week at most and they were perfect. May it be useful to you!

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