- 3 cups warm water (105° to 115°)
- 1 teaspoon active dry yeast
- 5 cups semolina flour* (pasta flour; about 30 ounces), divided
- 1 tablespoon coarse sea salt
- 5 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
- 1 1/2 cups (or more) unbleached all purpose flour, divided
- 2 tablespoons finely grated lemon peel
- 4 teaspoons minced fresh rosemary
Pour 3 cups warm water into large bowl of heavy-duty stand mixer fitted with dough hook. Sprinkle yeast over; stir to blend. Mix in 1 cup semolina flour. Let stand until small bubbles begin to rise to surface of mixture, about 40 minutes. Mix salt into yeast mixture, then beat in remaining 4 cups semolina flour, 1 cup at a time. Mix in 3 tablespoons oil, then 1 cup unbleached flour (dough will be slightly sticky).
Turn dough out onto floured work surface; knead in lemon peel, rosemary, and 1/2 cup unbleached flour. Knead until dough is smooth, elastic, and satiny, adding more unbleached flour by tablespoonfuls if dough is too sticky, about 10 minutes. Form dough into ball; return to same bowl. Cover bowl with plastic wrap, then kitchen towel. Let dough rise in warm draft-free area until doubled in volume, about 2 hours.
Punch dough down. Turn dough out onto floured work surface and knead 5 minutes. Divide dough in half. Sprinkle 2 baking sheets lightly with semolina flour. Roll out each dough piece to 12x8-inch rectangle. Transfer 1 dough rectangle to each prepared baking sheet. Using sharp knife, cut several 3-inch-long slits in each dough rectangle, cutting through completely. Pull slits apart, creating large holes in dough. Cover dough with kitchen towels and let rise in warm draft-free area until dough is doubled in volume, about 40 minutes.
Meanwhile, position 1 rack in bottom third and 1 rack in top third of oven and preheat to 425°F. Bake breads until puffed and golden brown, reversing baking sheets halfway through baking, about 30 minutes total. Transfer breads to racks; brush remaining 2 tablespoons oil over top of breads. Cool at least 10 minutes. DO AHEAD Can be made ahead. Cool completely. Wrap breads separately in foil, then enclose in resealable plastic bags and store at room temperature 1 day or freeze up to 2 weeks. If desired, rewarm thawed breads wrapped in foil in 350°F oven for 10 minutes. Serve breads whole or cut into thick crosswise strips.
Garlic & rosemary fougasse bread
Fougasse is such a lovely bread, with a very crisp, shattering, crust and a soft interior. It is especially great as a tear-and-share bread, but I invariably find that once I get my hands on fougasse, sharing is a difficult option!
Rosemary and garlic are gutsy flavours that work well in fougasse. As I often do when using garlic in doughs, I roast it slowly in oil until it becomes golden brown, squidgy and takes on that lovely sweet flavour. The roasted garlic gets worked into the bread dough, along with the fresh rosemary, at the start so that their flavours runs throughout the bread.
Using a simple pre-ferment for flavour
With bread it is all about getting a terrific depth of flavour and as I often like to do with breads, I have used a pre-ferment/poolish: made up in moments, but left overnight to work its magic, the pre-ferment is just flour, water and a little bit of yeast that gets mixed together and left to ferment overnight.
Seriously, if you have never made a pre-ferment for a bread dough, I would urge you to try it: it is so simple and gives wonderful results in terms of both flavour and texture. Especially in a bread such as fougasse that does not need much of a second rise.
If you don’t want to make a pre-ferment, simply increase the flour in the recipe to 500g and the water to 350-400ml.
The slower the rise, the better the flavour
Don’t rush the rising of the dough by putting it into a very warm place such as an airing cupboard or a conservatory: a cooler environment gives a slower rise and this gives a much better flavour.
With this in mind, I usually leave the dough on the work surface (my kitchen is usually quite cool), but I have pop in the fridge for several hours or overnight: just let it fit in with you!
(Update from France — went to I’sle sur la Sorgue today for market day. Tasted some wonderful cheeses and sausages that we bought for dinner. We have a little bakery in our town of 1800 and the first thing I noticed was they sold fougasse bread. Trying to find a goat farm, olive orchard and wineries to visit tomorrow.)
What is it about making bread that is so relaxing. Maybe it is the fact that it takes several hours to make with just a little work and then you produce this great smelling hot bread out of the oven that you can’t wait to get your hands on. I seem to make the biggest mess when I make bread. I have the flour all over me, the floor, and the counter. One would think I had never stepped in a kitchen before from the way I look with flour all over the place. I am not a neat baker to say the least but I think I can produce great things from the oven.
I hope while in France, that we are eating croissants every morning, French Baguettes with wine and cheese in the afternoon and some other fantastic pastries just for the heck of it.
Fougasse is a type of bread associated with the Provence area of France but is also found in other regions with variations. Some recipes will have olives, cheese, anchovies. Normally it is rolled into a rectangle shape and slashed then pulled apart at the cuts to resemble a leaf. Some bakers make it more tree shaped. This is almost a focaccia type bread but is baked a little crispier than focaccia. My focaccia is wonderful so I couldn’t await to try fougasse to compare.
Most recipes I looked at suggested letting your guest tear off chunks of break instead of cutting it.
So, we are traveling in Provence now and I hope I’m having this bread at some local bistro. I do so want to compare my attempt at making this bread to one from the area which made it famous.
My first attempt. Ok, this is suppose to look like a leaf but doesn’t this look like a face with a winking eye, twisted nose and mouth. I will try this again to see if I can get more open spaces.
So, I tried again and made this for Super Bowl night.
Oh what good things you can make with a little flour and yeast.
Herbs de Provence. What a wonderful blend of spices.
Add in the sun-dried tomatoes or olives or whatever extra ingredient you may want to add.
Make one cut in the center and three on each side.
This is what it looks like after lifting it up and moving it to the cookie sheet. The openings open up more. This broke at the top and I had to press it back together. The top gets brushed with some olive oil and then sprinkled with a little more Herbs de Provence before baking.
I love this recipe and wonder if I could make a rye bread version by substituting a half cup of rye flour and two and one half cups of all-purpose?
Brilliant idea. I have tried adding rye flour and it is delicious. It does work best when added with all-purpose, so I think you’re spot on with your amounts. Once you try the bread with 1/2 cup rye, maybe you could try adding 1 cup of rye on your next bake. Please let me know how it turns out.
fantastic…so easy to make and absolutely delicious! The house smelled wonderful this morning with baking bread. I could hardly wait while it cooled to cut it! I do love your recipes…easy to follow and so far…perfect results! Thank you.
Thank you so much for your review and I’m thrilled you loved the bread. You are right about the fabulous smells in the home while baking.
I would love to make this, but first – what type of flour is it SUPPOSE to be? All Purpose or bread flour? Thanks!
I use all-purpose flour but will work great with Bread flour. The difference is protein content. Bread flour has a higher protein content than all-purpose flour and will give the bread a tighter crumb. So the air holes one be as large. I hope this answers your question. Let me know if you need further help.
The recipe only lists “yeast”, is it regular yeast or instant rapid rise yeast? Want to make this bread this week, looks yummy.
You can use either. Instant yeast can be stirred right into the flour and regular yeast will need to be activated in 1/4 cup water. I always use instant.
Love your recipes, so excited to try them. Everything I have made has been delicIous!! Have 7 kids, some with spOuses and 12 Grandkids. Everyone raves about your recipes. We are pretty healthy eaters but Love our Sweet Desserts too. I am aLso impressed by the simpl and ease in preparing. You do a great job, explaining and usually with not Too many ingredients. Will continuE to wait and watch for new reCipes. Would love some great healthy vegetable side Dishes to
Go with fish, Shrimp, Beef, Pork or Chicken.
Thank you and God Bless,
Thank you so much for your kind compliment. I’ll work on healthy side dishes.
This bread is So goof toasted! The cheese gets a little melted, and the lemon and rosemary are such a great combinatioN!
For the dough, combine the flour, yeast and salt with up to 350ml/12fl oz lukewarm water, until you have a soft dough. Knead for 10-15 minutes (you can do this by hand or in a free-standing mixer fitted with a dough hook). Transfer to an oiled bowl, cover with cling film and leave to rise for 30 minutes.
After 30 minutes, place into a lined and slightly warmed baking tray of 37 x 27cm/14 x 10¾in. Drizzle with olive oil and top with fresh rosemary, chopped garlic, sea salt and a little pepper.
Press your fingers into the dough to make dimples and then rest again for another 30 minutes.
Preheat the oven to 240C/450F/Gas 8.
Bake for about 15 minutes, or until evenly golden-brown. Check the focaccia from time to time as domestic ovens can very often colour one side and not the other. Check and move the tray accordingly.
Once cooked, remove from the oven and immediately drizzle some olive oil all over. Leave to cool, then cut into squares.
This focaccia is delicious eaten on the day it is baked, but it will keep for a few days and you can freshen it up in the oven for a few minutes just before serving.
Making the dough:
Combine water, yeast and sugar and let the yeast activate and foam.
Place in a stand mixer with a dough hook and mix.
Mix the flour and salt together.
Start adding the flour, a little at a time while the machine is running until the dough gathers together.
Continue kneading a couple of minutes more, then remove and finish the kneading by hand, adding flour as necessary to create a soft but not too sticky dough.
Place in an oiled bowl, cover and let rest until doubles in size, about 2 hours.
You can proceed with the recipe now or punch the dough down and refrigerate until the next day. Bring back to room temperature before proceeding.
To form the fougasse:
Without punching the dough down stretch it into a rectangle, not too thin and lay on a sheet of floured parchment.
With a sharp knife make a few cuts as you see in the images: one vertically from the top going towards the center and four more diagonal cuts below. Pull apart the cut areas so they do not close when you bake the fougasse.
Brush the dough with olive oil and then press the olives onto the dough and scatter the chopped herbs over and the coarse salt.
Let the dough rest for about 20 minutes.
Bake in a 450-500F oven preferably on a baking stone. You should turn the oven on about an hour before you plan to bake, to make sure it is nice and hot.
I transfer the fougasse into the oven by sliding a large metal pizza peel under the parchment and sliding the whole thing onto the baking stone as is. You can always pull out the parchment after a few minutes of cooking (not too soon) or leave it to cook over the parchment.
What to Eat in France: Flat Provençal Bread Cooked in Wood Oven with Anchovy Paste and Rosemary
Fougasse is a traditional flat loaf made in Provence and cooked in woodash. It can be served plain, or with olives, bacon bits, anchovies or cheese. Some even add sugar and spices or jam.
The word fougasse, fougace or fouasse comes from Provençal, but variations have spread all over Europe, and include Italy’s focaccia and Spain’s fougassa. It originally came from the Latin panis focacius, meaning “a flat bread cooked in an oven or over the ashes of a fire.” It was originally eaten plain, but there are endless variations these days. The sweet version can be eaten for breakfast and is usually eaten cold, while the savory version is eaten hot out of the oven.
The ingredients are simple: flour, water, sometimes eggs or milk, and yeast. Even though recipes vary from village to village and region to region, some using baker’s yeast and others baking powder, it is always flat like a pancake, and shaped into the branches, giving it the shape of ears of wheat. It is the shape that makes it distinctive.
See recipe on the next page.
1.1 lb or 5 c. flour
2 packages dried yeast + 1/3 c. warm water
2 T. salt
4/10 c. water
1 c + 2 T. cooking oil
300 g anchovies in oil
3 cloves garlic
1/2 c. olive oil
1 T. rosemary
Large baking sheet
- Several hours before making the dough, soak anchovies in cold water to remove the salt.
- Before using, drain and press out water.
- Place anchovies in a mortar with the garlic cloves. Use pestle to press into a paste, gradually adding olive oil and rosemary, and ending with one squeeze of lemon.
- Activate yeast by putting it in a 1/3 cup of warm water.
- Pour 125 g or 1 1/3 cup of flour onto a pastry mat or marble. Make a well in the middle.
- Pour yeast mixture into the well and mix with fingers until dough is smooth and elastic.
- Place dough in a large mixing bowl and sprinkle the rest of the flour over the dough.
- Work flour into dough, shaping it into a ball.
- Cover with a dish cloth and leave in a dry, warm place at room temperature for about 30 minutes.
- Add salt, water and cooking oil and work dough until it is smooth and supple. Leave it to rest again, under the same conditions, for about one hour.
- Roll dough out on a pastry mat or marble until it is 1/2- to 3/4-inch thick.
- Butter a baking sheet.
- Spread dough on baking sheet and spread it out evenly.
- Generously spread anchoïade on dough. Let it rest at room temperature for 20 minutes.
- Preheat oven to 350° F or 180° C.
- Place fougasse in middle of oven and bake for 20 minutes. Keep an eye on it. It should remain soft like bread, not crispy.
- Serve cold for apéritif or hot as a light meal with tomatoes, olives, mozzarella and capers, or with a green salad.
Note: Fougasse can keep overnight. Sprinkle it with a little olive oil to avoid it drying out.
Green Olive Fougasse
So tots-no-bigs but this is my 300th blog post! I can’t believe it! If you are a regular reader you are probably thinking to yourself she posts a few times a week, it’s been over four years…how can this only be her 300th post? Well I can tell you, I didn’t always post this much. Sometimes I would have a month or two with no posts, but that time is over, and I hope I’m celebrating my 400th post sooner than later.
So what do you make for your 300th post? Anything you would like. Secret number two in exposing myself, this kind of crept up on me and I didn’t plan anything special, but coincidentally, I made something special none the less.
Post number 300 is all about bread, French green olive bread (fougasse). It’s delicious, I totally ate half a loaf in one sitting, no butter, no remorse.
In the search for a perfect fougasse recipe, I found one on Serious Eats. After doing some research I have= to assume that Dorie Greenspan makes a perfect fougasse because just about everyone highlights her recipe as the one to use to make this rustic flat bread.
The one thing I had a hard time with was that I don’t have a stand mixer, and the reason I do not have one is because my kitchen is not tiny but my storage space is (very) lacking. Just because you do not have a stand mixer doesn’t mean you can make amazing bread, although it does mean you need to put in a tiny bit more effort in order to do so. If you are lucky enough to have space for one or at least own a stand mixer, following the instructions linked under the recipe title for Serious Eats may be to your advantage.
I should mention, this recipe takes a few days, not a few days worth of work, just a few days worth of waiting (audible sigh). You will become OK with-it, I promise. After you taste this rich buttery, chewy and soft, salty bread you will start another batch as soon as humanly possible.
Let’s talk ingredients. I used good quality garlic-marinated Sicilian green olives. I know, I know, it’s a French recipe and traditionally fougasse is made with black olives but as the recipe advises that it is closer to a focaccia in texture. I disagree slightly but the mix of fresh rosemary, lemon zest and garlic marinated green olives is to die for, trust me.
Green Olive Fougasse
adapted from Serious Eats which is adapted from Around My French Table by Dorie Greenspan.
- 1 2/3 cups plus 2 teaspoons warm water
- 2 tsp yeast
- 1 tsp agave nectar
- 4 tbs olive oil
- 4 cups all-purpose flour
- 1 1/4 tsp coarse sea salt
- 1 cup whole, good quality green olives, pitted and coarsely chopped
- 1 tbs fresh rosemary, stemmed and minced
- 1 tbs of lemon zest
- coarse sea salt, for sprinkling
In large bowl add yeast, 2/3 cup of warm water and agave syrup. Stir to dissolve and let sit about 5 minutes. The yeast with froth on top and after the waiting period stir in one more cup of the water and 4 tablespoons olive oil.
Using a sturdy wooden spoon, add salt and then flour one cup at a time to the yeast mix. The dough will be soft and sticky, but you will need to use your hand to combine well. Once it’s been kneaded for a few minutes add the olives, rosemary, and lemon zest. I found this made the dough very hard to work with, as it seemed like the addition of wet ingredients separated the dough. Just keep kneading for an additional 2-4 minutes until all if combined. If a few olives pop out of the dough, don’t worry. It needs to rest for a while and will all become incorporated.
Spray a large sheet of plastic wrap with non-stick spray or oil and cover the top of the bread dough. Let rise at a room temperature between 60-120 minutes. If it’s warm leave it for 60 minutes if it’s cooler leave it for two hours.
At the end of the first rise, punch down the dough, recover and leave to rest at least overnight in the fridge. I left mine in there for almost 3 days but I wouldn’t leave it much longer. It will double in size and will be ready to bake when you are.
When you are ready to bake remove the dough from the fridge and divide into two halves. Pre-heat the oven to 450F when you are working with the dough.
At this point the dough should be pretty easy to work with but a tad on the sticky side. You can flour a work surface a roll out each dough half, but I took the lazy way and stretched it with my hands leaving it to rest on parchment paper. My doughs balls ended up being about 9″x11″ each.
I used a sharp knife and tried two different cuts. The bread is supposed to resemble a leaf or a blade of wheat. My first I cut a space for a ‘stem’ running up the middle.
However I prefer the look of the second one which just had six short diagonal cuts, three on each side mirroring the other. Either route you go, you need to use your fingers to try to pull open the spaces in between to give it room to expand.
Cover the dough and let rest for at least 15 minutes before baking. Position the oven rack to be in the middle or on the lower rack.
When dough is ready to bake mix, 1 tablespoon or olive oil with 2 tablespoons of water and brush the outside of each loaf, sprinkle with coarse salt.
Bake bread for 10 minutes, rotate sides in the oven and bake for about 10-15 minutes. The bread should be a light brown and should be served warm with other appetizers.
Let it rest for about 10 minutes until it can be handled without gloves, and serve up with butter or olive oil. Delish!
Astray Recipes: Olive ladder bread - fougasse (bd)
Recipe by: BAKER'S DOZEN SHOW #BD1A29 You will need a large bread bowl, four 10- by 15- inch or larger baking sheets that will fit in pairs side-by-side in your oven, a sharp knife or razor blade, and a pastry brush. Place water in a large bowl, sprinkle on yeast, then stir in 2½ cups of the all purpose flour. Stir 100 times in the same direction (one minute) to develop the gluten, then leave this sponge covered with plastic wrap for 30 minutes or up to two hours.
Stir in olive oil, salt, olives, and buckwheat flour. Mix in remaining flour, a cup at a time, stirring always in the same direction, until dough becomes too stiff to stir. Turn dough out onto a well floured working surface. Using floured hands, knead gently until the dough has an even consistency (apart from the olives), then knead 5 minutes longer. Clean bread bowl, oil it lightly, place dough in the bowl, then cover with plastic wrap. Let rise for 2 to 3 hours.
It will have almost doubled in volume. Oil two 10 by 15 inch (or larger) baking sheets. Flatten dough down gently with your hands, then turn out onto floured working surface. Cut dough in half, return half to the bread bowl and cover. Divide remaining half in two. Knead each half into a ball and then flatten gently with the palm of your hand. Let stand five minutes to rest. Working with each piece in turn, flatten out with your palms into a rectangle or oval about 10 inches long and 5 to 6 inches wide. It will be about ½ to ¾ inch thick. Transfer each to a lightly oiled baking sheet at least 14 inches long. Let loaves rise for 20 to 30 minutes, covered with a damp towel or plastic wrap. Preheat oven to 400 degrees and set rack at the center of the oven or just above. (If your baking sheets do not fit side-by-side on one rack, place two racks in oven, one just above the center and one just below. One bread can go on each rack about halfway through baking (after 10 to 12 minutes), switch the two around.) Just before placing in the oven, use a sharp knife or razor blade to make cuts through the breads: Starting two inches from the top and about an inch from the side, cut across the bread to within an inch of the other side. Make two more cuts, parallel to the first, at about 2 inch intervals (the cuts should go all the way through the dough). The dough will separate at each cut, so that the bread looks like a kind of fat-runged ladder you can pull dough apart even more if you wish and if your baking sheets are long enough, by pulling gently on each end of the breads to make the slits gape more. Brush each loaf lightly with olive oil all over, place in the oven, and bake for 20 minutes. Breads will be golden when done.
Once first two loaves are in the oven, oil two more baking sheets, then flatten remaining dough, divide into two, and repeat steps required to form loaves. Breads should almost have finished rising by the time the first batch comes out of the oven. Yield: 4 loaves Jackie Bordelon [email protected] >